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1. Winston Churchill, "The Iron Curtain," Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat: The Speeches of Winston Churchill, ed. David Cannadine (Boston: Houghton Mifilin, 1989), pp. 303-305.

2. Tacitus, Germania, .: The Agricola and the Germania, trans. H. Mattingly and S. A. Handford (London: Penguin, 1970), p. 114.

3. William Coxe, Travels into Poland, .: Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark: Interspersed with Historical Relations and Political Inquiries (London, 1785; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1971), .

4. Louis-Philippe, comte de Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Ségur, vol. , .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à lhistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XIX, ed. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859); John Ledyard, John Ledyards Journey Through Russia and Siberia 1787-1788: The Journal and Selected Letters, ed. Stephen D. Watrous (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1966).

5. Abel Mansuy, Le Monde slave et les classiques français aux XVIeXVIIe siècles, préface de Charles Diehl (Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion, 1912), pp. 8, 10.

6. Edward W. Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), pp. 1-3.

7. Martin Bernal, Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, vol. I, The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785-1985 (New Brunswick, N. J.: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1987); Frederico Chabod, Storia dellidea dEuropa (Bari: Editori Laterza, 1965), pp. 82-121; Denys Hay, Europe: The Emergence of an Idea (Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1968), pp. 117-127; Jean-Baptiste Duroselle, LIdee dEurope dans Ihistoire (Paris: Denoël, 1965), pp. 77-133; . : Janusz Tazbir, "Poland and the Concept of Europe in the Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries," European Studies Review 7, no. 1 (Jan. 1977): 29-45.

8. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Briefe, ed. Horst Wandrey (Zurich: Diogenes, 1982), p. 371.

9. Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press, 1974), p. 97.

10. Ibid., p. 301.

11. Daniel Chirot, ed., The Origins of Backwardness in Eastern Europe: Economics and Politics from the Middle Ages Until the Early Twentieth Century (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1989), pp. 1-15.

12. Harold B. Segel, Renaissance Culture in Poland: The Rise of Humanism 1470-1543 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1989), p. 13; . : Antoni Mączak, "Progress and Under-Development in the Eyes of Renaissance and Baroque Man," Studio, Historiae Oeconomicae 9 (1974): 77-94.

13. Mansuy, pp. 32, 56-57.

14. Ibid., pp. 14-15.

15. Jacques Margeret, The Russian Empire and Grand Duchy of Muscovy: A 17th-century French Account, trans. Chester S. L. Dunning (Pittsburgh, Pa.: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1983), pp. 8, 10, 23.

16. John Smith, Travels and Works of Captain John Smith: President of Virginia, and Admiral of New England, 1580-1631, ed. Edward Arber, Part II (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1910), pp. 805, 857, 866-868.

17. Adam Olearius, The Travels of Olearius in Seventeenth-Century Russia, trans. Samuel H. Baron (Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press, 1967), pp. 126-147; . : Walter Leitsch, "Westeuropäische Reiseberichte über den Moskauer Staat," .: Reiseberichte als Quellen europäischer Kulturgeschichte: Aufgaben und Möglichkeiten der historischen Reiseforschung, ed. Antoni Mączak and Hans Jürgen Teuteberg (Wolfenbüttel: Herzog August Bibliothek, 1982), pp. 153-176.

18. John Milton, A Brief History of Moscovia: And of Other Less-Known Countries Lying Eastward of Russia as far as Cathay (London: Blackamore Press, 1929), p. 32.

19. James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson, ed. Frank Brady (New York: New American Library, 1968), pp. 236-237.

20. Norbert Elias, The History of Manners, trans. Edmund Jephcott (New York: Pantheon Books, 1978), pp. 44-50; Joachim Moras, Ursprung und Entwicklung des Begriffs der Zivilisation in Frankreich (1756-1830), . : Hamburger Studien zu Volkstum und Kultur der Romanen, vol. 6 (Hamburg: Seminar für romanische Sprachen und Kultur, 1930), pp. 4-8, 32-43, 46-47, 55-57, 63; Lucien Febvre, "Civilisation: Evolution of a Word and a Group of Ideas," A New Kind of History: From the Writings of Febvre, ed. Peter Burke, trans. K. Folca (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), pp. 219-257.

21. Ségur, I, pp. 329-330.

22. Honoré de Balzac, Cousin Bette, trans. Marion Ayton Crawford (London: Penguin, 1965), pp. 229-230.

23. Larry Wolff, The Vatican and Poland in the Age of the Partitions: Diplomatic and Cultural Encounters at the Warsaw Nunciature (New York and Boulder: Columbia Univ. Press, East European Monographs, 1988), p. 178.

24. Timothy Garton Ash, "Does Central Europe Exist?" The New York Review of Books (Oct. 9, 1986), : The Uses of Adversity: Essays on the Fate of Central Europe (New York: Random House, 1989), pp. 179-213; Timothy Garton Ash, "Mitteleuropa?" Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 119, no. 1 (Winter 1990): Eastern Europe... Central Europe... Europe, pp. 1-21; . : shan Kumar, "The 1989 Revolutions and the Idea of Europe," Political Studies 40 (1992): 439-461; R. J. W. Evans, "Essay and Reflection: Frontiers and National Identities in Central Europe," The International History Review 14, no. 3 (Aug. 1992), pp. 480-502; Robin Okey, "Central Europe/Eastern Europe: Behind the Definitions," Past and Present 137 (Nov. 1992), pp. 102-133; Iver B. Neumann, "Russia as Central Europes Constituting Other," East European Politics and Societies 7, no. 2 (Spring 1993), pp. 349-369.

25. Mikhail Gorbachev, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World (1987; New York: Harper & Row, Perennial Library, 1988), pp. 177, 180.
















1. Louis-Philippe, comte de Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Ségur, vol. , .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à Ihistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XIX, ed. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), pp. 288-289, 293.

2. Ibid., I, p. 293.

3. Ibid., I, p. 300.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., I, p. 301.

6. Ibid., I, p. 302.

7. Ibid., I, p. 301.

8. Ibid., I, pp. 316-317.

9. Ibid., I, pp. 329-330.

10. Ibid., I, pp. 332-333.

11. Ibid., I, p. 333.

12. Ibid., I, p. 399.

13. Louis-Philippe, comte de Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Ségur, vol. II, in Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à Ihistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XX, ed. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), p. 93.

14. Ibid., II, p. 93.

15. Ségur, I, p. 356.

16. Peter Putnam, ed., Seven Britons in Imperial Russia 1698-1812 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1952), pp. 237-241; . : ", William," Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford Univ. Press), vol. IV, pp. 1346-1347.

17. William Edward Mead, The Grand Tour in the Eighteenth Century (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914), p. 4.

18. William Coxe, Travels into Poland, from Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark: Interspersed with Historical Relations and Political Inquiries (London, 1785; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1971), p. 122.

19. Ibid., p. 125.

20. Ibid., pp. 148-149.

21. Elizabeth Craven, A Journey Through the Crimea to Constantinople: In a Series of Letters from the Right Honourable Elizabeth Lady Craven, to His Serene Highness the Margrave of Brandebourg, Anspach, and Bareith, Written in the Year MDCCLXXXVI (Dublin, 1789; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1970), p. 158.

22. Coxe, Travels into Poland, pp. 186-187.

23. Ségur, I, p. 329; Coxe, Travels into Poland, p. 150.

24. Coxe, Travels into Poland, pp. 191, 197, 199.

25. Ibid., p. 193.

26. Ibid., pp. 142, 188, 201, 205.

27. Ibid., pp. 143-144.

28. Ibid., p. 209.

29. Ibid.

30. Ibid., pp. 209-210.

31. Ibid., p. 205; Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, .: Travels in Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, 5th ed. (London, 1802; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1970), I, p. 251.

32. Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, I, pp. 255-256, 272; . : Anthony Cross, "British Knowledge of Russian Culture (1698-1801)," Canadian-American Slavic Studies 13, no. 4 (Winter 1979): 412-435.

33. Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, I, pp. 267, 270.

34. Ibid., I, pp. 271-272; II, pp. 68-69.

35. Ibid., I, p. 268.

36. Ibid., I, p. 277.

37. Ibid., I, p. 283.

38. Ibid., I, pp. 283-285.

39. Ibid., I, pp. 287-289.

40. Ibid., I, pp. 306-307.

41. Ibid., II, pp. 66, 69, 70.

42. Ibid., II, pp. 62, 64, 67, 72.

43. Ibid., II, pp. 77, 91-94.

44. Ibid., II, pp. 97-98.

45. Ibid., II, p. 107.

46. Ibid., II, pp. 104,134.

47. Ibid., II, pp. 121-122.

48. Ibid., II, pp. 140,156.

49. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, The Complete Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, ed. Robert Halsband, vol. I (1708-1720) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), pp. 293-296.

50. Ibid., pp. 295-297.

51. Ibid., p. 297.

52. Gyula Antalffy, A Thousand Years of Travel in Old Hungary, trans. Elisabeth Hoch (Hungary: Kner, 1980), p. 220.

53. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, pp. 297-299.

54. Ibid., pp. 301-303.

55. Ibid., p. 305.

56. Antalffy, pp. 114-118.

57. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, p. 307.

58. Ibid., pp. 304, 316.

59. Ibid., pp. 313-314, 320.

60. Ibid., pp. 309-310, 312.

61. Ibid., p. 337.

62. "Salaberry," La Grande Encyclopédie (Paris: Librairie Larousse, 18861902), vol. 29, pp. 326-327; Jean-Louis Carra, Histoire de la Moldavie et de la Valachie (Jassy: Société Typographique des Deux-Ponts, 1777), p. xv.

63. Charles-Marie, marquis de Salaberry dIrumberry, Voyage à Constantinople, en Italie, et aux îles de lArchipel, par lAllemagne et la Hongrie (Paris: Imprimerie de Crapelet, 1799), pp. 65-66,69.

64. Ibid., pp. 76, 81.

65. Ibid., pp. 82-83.

66. Antalffy, pp. 189-192.

67. Salaberry, pp. 86, 91-92.

68. Ibid., pp. 97-98.

69. Antalffy, pp. 194,201.

70. Salaberry, pp. 102-104, 110.

71. Ibid., pp. 100-101.

72. Ibid., p. 124.

73. Ibid., pp. 82, 125; Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, p. 340.

74. Salaberry, pp. 134, 138.

75. Salaberry, p. 143.

76. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, p. 358; Salaberry, p. 145.

77. Salaberry, pp. 214-216.

78. Ibid., p. 167.

79. Ibid., pp. 184-186.

80. Ibid., p. 152.

81. Ibid., p. 148.

















1. Giacomo Casanova, History of My Life, trans. Willard Trask, vol. 10 (London: Longman, 1971), p. 99.

2. Casanova, History of My Life, pp. 110-112.

3. Casanova, History of My Life, pp. 112-113.

4. R. R. Palmer and Joel Colton, "The Transformation of Eastern Europe, 1648-1740," kh.: History of the Modern World, 3rd ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), p. 174; . : Jerome Blum, "The Rise of Serfdom in Eastern Europe," American Historical Review 62, no. 4 (July 1957): 807-836.

5. Casanova, History of My Life, pp. 113-114.

6. Voltaire and Catherine, Correspondence, .: Documents of Catherine the Great: The Correspondence with Voltaire and the Instruction of 1767, ed. W. F. Reddaway (1931; New York: Russell & Russell, 1971), p. 159.

7. Casanova, History of My Life, p. 135.

8. Ibid., pp. 114-116; Casanova, The Life and Memoirs of Casanova, vol. I, trans. Arthur Machen, ed. George Dunning Gribble (1929; rpt. New York: Da Capo, 1984), p. 320.

9. Casanova, History of My Life, pp. 114-115.

10. Ibid., pp. 114-116.

11. Ibid., p. 119.

12. Casanova, The Life and Memoirs, p. 138.

13. Casanova, History of My Life, p. 120.

14. Ibid., p. 130.

15. Ibid., p. 118.

16. Ibid., p. 121.

17. Ibid., pp. 121-122.

18. Marquis de Sade, Juliette, trans. Austryn Wainhouse (New York: Grove Press, 1968), p. 891.

19. Casanova, History of My Life, pp. 124-125.

20. Ibid., p. 125.

21. Ibid., p. 127.

22. Ibid., pp. 129-130.

23. Ibid., p. 131.

24. Ibid., pp. 138-142.

25. Ibid., p. 132.

26. Ibid., p. 133.

27. Ibid., p. 154.

28. Ibid., p. 156.

29. Ibid.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid., p. 177.

32. Ibid., p. 202.

33. Ibid.

34. Louis-Philippe, comte de Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Ségur, vol. , .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à lhistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XIX, éd. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), pp. 300,329.

35. Ibid., I, p. 331.

36. Ibid., I, p. 432.

37. Ibid., I, p. 343.

38. Ibid., I, p. 345.

39. Ibid., I, pp. 338-340.

40. Ibid., I, pp. 341-343.

41. Louis-Philippe, comte de Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Ségur, vol. II, y .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à lhistoire de France, pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XX, éd. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), pp. 9-10.

42. Ibid., I, pp. 336-337.

43. Ibid., II, p. 79.

44. Ibid., II, p. 80.

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid., II, pp. 165-168.

47. Samuel Eliot Morison, John Paul Jones: A Sailors Biography (1959; New York: Time Incorporated, 1964), pp. 388-393.

48. Morison, p. 13.

49. Ibid., pp. 406-409; Ségur, II, p. 166.

50. Ségur, II, pp. 170,178.

51. Bernard Lewis, The Emergence of Modem Turkey, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1968), pp. 48-49.

52. François de Tott, Mémoires du baron de Tott sur les Turcs et les Tartares (Amsterdam, 1785), "Discours préliminaire," pp. vii-xxi; Tott, "Premiere partie" (I), p. 5.

53. Tott, "Seconde partie," (II), p. 6; . : A. M. F. Verdy du Vernois, Essais de Géographie, de Politique, et dHistoire sur les possessions de lEmpereur des Turcs en Europe: pour servir de suite aux Mémoires du Baron de Tott (London, 1785).

54. Tott, II, p. 11.

55. Ibid., II, pp. 12-13.

56. Ibid, II, pp. 14-15.

57. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, The Complete Letters of Lady Mary Worthy Montagu, ed. Robert Halsband, vol. I (1708-1720) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), p. 311.

58. Tott, II, p. 17.

59. Ibid., II, pp. 18-20.

60. Ibid., II, pp. 21-23.

61. Elizabeth Craven, A Journey Through the Crimea to Constantinople: In a Series of Letters from the Right Honourable Elizabeth Lady Craven, to His Serene Highness the Margrave of Brandebourg, Anspach, and Bareith, Written in the Year MDCCLXXXVI (Dublin, 1789; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1970), pp. 372, 382.

62. William Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, from Travels in Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, 5th ed. (London, 1802; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1970), I, pp. 389-390.

63. Ibid., I, p. 391.

64. Ibid., I, pp. 392-93.

65. Ibid., I, p. 392.

66. Ibid., II, p. 74.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid., I, p. 390.

69. Gyula Antalffy, A Thousand Years of Travel in Old Hungary, trans. Elisabeth Hoch (Hungary: Kner, 1980), pp. 198-201.

70. Charles-Marie, marquis de Salaberry dIrumberry, Voyage à Constantinople, en Italie, et aux îles de lArchipel, par lAllemagne et la Hongrie (Paris: Imprimerie de Crapelet, 1799), p. 89.

71. Ibid., p. 95.

72. Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, III, pp. 116-117; . : Anthony Cross, "The Philanthropist, the Travelling Tutor, and the Empress: British Visitors and Catherine IIs Plans for Penal and Medical Reform," .: Russia and the World of the Eighteenth Century, eds. R. P. Bartlett, A. G. Cross, and Karen Rasmussen (Columbus, Ohio: Slavic Publishers, 1988), pp. 214-228.

73. Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, III, p. 110.

74. Ibid., III, pp. 110-111.

75. Ibid.

76. Sade, Juliette, pp. 882, 885.

77. Joseph Marshall, Travels Through Germany, Russia, and Poland in the Years 1769 and 1770 (London, 1772; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1971), pp. 126, 167, 243.

78. John Parkinson, A Tour of Russia, Siberia, and the Crimea, 1792-1794, ed. William Collier (London: Frank Cass, 1971), p. 11.

79. Marshall, pp. 142, 147, 151.

80. Charles Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, trans. Thomas Nugent (New York: Hafner, 1949), vol. I, p. 235; Marshall, p. 143.

81. Marshall, pp. 146,196.

82. Ibid., p. 188.

83. Ibid., pp. 122,270-271, 308.

84. Peter Putnam, ed. Seven Britons in Imperial Russia 1698-1812 (Princeton, N. J. : Princeton Univ. Press, 1952), pp. 125-140; and "Richardson, William," Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford Univ. Press), vol. XVI, p. 1139.

85. William Richardson, Anecdotes of the Russian Empire: In a Series of Letters Written, a Few Years Ago, from St. Petersburg (London, 1784; rpt. London: Frank Cass, 1968), pp. 51-54, 203-206.

86. Ibid., pp. 6, 475.

87. Ibid., pp. 68-70, 215, 247.

88. Ibid., pp. 374-375; . : Franco Venturi, "From Scotland to Russia: An Eighteenth-Century Debate on Feudalism, " .: Great Britain and Russia in the Eighteenth Century: Contacts and Comparisons, ed. Anthony Cross (Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Partners, 1979), pp. 2-24.

89. Richardson, p. 193.

90. Ibid., pp. 193-196, 222.

91. Ibid., pp. 39, 417.

92. Ibid., p. 233.

93. Ibid., p. 197.

94. Ibid., p. 199.

95. Ibid., p. 239.

96. Ibid., pp. 240-241.

97. Ibid., pp. 242-243.

98. Ibid., p. 241.

99. Ibid., pp. 244-249.

100. Ibid., pp. 253-254, 453; David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press, 1966), chapter XIII.

101. Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, III, p. 133.

102. Ibid., III, p. 135.

103. Ibid., III, pp. 134-135, 152-153.

104. Ibid., III, p. 158.

105. Ibid., III, p. 156.














1. Voltaire, Histoire de Charles XII (Paris: Gamier-Flammarion, 1968), p. 44; . : Lionel Gossman, "Voltaires Charles XII: History into art, " Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, ed. Theodore Besterman, Vol. XXV (Geneva: Institut et Musee Voltaire, 1963), pp. 691-720; J. H. Brumfitt, Voltaire: Historian (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1958), pp. 5-25; Furio Diaz, Voltaire Storico (Turin: Giulio Einaudi, 1958), pp. 77-109.

2. Voltaire, Histoire de Charles XII, p. 49.

3. Ibid., pp. 53, 68-72.

4. Ibid., pp. 118, 123-124.

5. Ibid., p. 126; Michel Foucault, The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (New York: Vintage Books, 1973), p. 144.

6. Voltaire, Histoire de Charles XII, pp. 129-130.

7. Ibid., p. 125.

8. Ibid., pp. 157-158.

9. Ibid., p. 115.

10. Ibid., pp. 202-203; Charles-Marie, marquis de Salaberry dIrumberry, Voyage a Constantinople, en Italie, et aux îles de lArchipel, par lAllemagne et la Hongrie (Paris: Imprimerie de Crapelet, 1799), p. 146.

11. Voltaire, Histoire de Charles XII, pp. 60, 97, 124, 130; Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), p. 215.

12. Carolus Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, 1735: Facsimile of the First Edition, eds. M. S. J. Engel-Ledeboer and H. Engel (Nieuwkoop: B. de Graaf, 1964), p. 19.

13. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, "Zeitungsartikel und Rezensionen: Berlinische privilegirte Zeitung, 1751, " Werke, vol. VII (Hildesheim: Georg Olm sVerlag, 1970), pp. 159-160.

14. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, "Der Horoskop, " Werke, Bd. VIII (Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 1970), pp. 196-204.

15. Johann Gottfried Herder, Journal meiner Reise im Jahr 1769, ed. Katharina Mommsen (Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam, 1976), p. 78.

16. Voltaire, "Le Russe à Paris, " .: Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, vol. 10 (Paris, 1878; rpt. Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint Limited, 1967), pp. 119-131.

17. Jean-Paul Marat, Polish Letters (Boston, 1905; rpt. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1971), I, p. 200.

18. Ibid., I, pp. 101, 122-123, 147, 167.

19. Ibid., I, pp. 168, 172, 180, 211.

20. Ibid., II, pp. 1-3.

21. Miss Jane Porter, Thaddeus of Warsaw. A Tale Founded on Polish Heroism (New York: A. L. Burt, n. d.), p. ix; Honoré de Balzac, Cousin Bette, trans. Marion Ayton Crawford (London: Penguin, 1965), p. 73; George Eliot, Middlemarch, ed. W. J. Harvey (London: Penguin, 1965), p. 895; Louisa May Alcott, "My Boys, " .: Aunt Jos Scrapbag, ed. Helen Martin (Boston: Little, Brown, 1929), p. 326.

22. Marat, Polish Letters, I, pp. 106, 114, 181; II, pp. 65, 136-137, 199.

23. Ibid., II, pp. 211-212.

24. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, trans. Maurice Cranston (London: Penguin, 1968), p. 49; Marat, Polish Letters, II, p. 213.

25. Rudolf Eric Raspe, The Travels and Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchausen (London: Dedalus, 1988), p. 9; "Raspe, Rudolf Eric, " Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford Univ. Press), Vol. XVI, pp. 744-746; Percy G. Adams, Travelers and Travel Liars, 1660-1800 (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1962), pp. 216-217.

26. Raspe, pp. 10-13.

27. Ibid., pp. 13, 17.

28. Ibid., pp. 23-24.

29. Ibid., p. 23.

30. Ibid., p. 75; Marquis de Sade, Juliette, trans. Austryn Wainhouse (New York: Grove Press, 1968), p. 875.

31. Raspe, p. 29.

32. William Richardson, Anecdotes of the Russian Empire: In a Series of Letters Written, a Few Years Ago, from St. Petersburg (London, 1784; rpt. London: Frank Cass, 1968), p. 177.

33. William Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, from Travels in Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, 5th ed. (London, 1802; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1970), II, pp. 244-245; Raspe, pp. 32-37.

34. Raspe, p. 82.

35. Ibid., pp. 191-192.

36. Ibid., pp. 240-248.

37. Ibid., p. 253.

38. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Briefe, ed. Horst Wandrey (Zürich: Diogenes, 1982), pp. 370-371.

39. Paul Nettl, Mozart in Böhmen, neubearbeitete und erweiterte Ausgabe von Rudolph Freiherrn von Prochazkas Mozart in Prag (Prague: Verlag Neumann, 1938), pp. 96-97.

40. Friedrich Melchior von Grimm, "The Little Prophet of Boehmischbroda, " .: Source Readings in Music History: The Classic Era, ed. Oliver Strunk (New York: Norton, 1965), pp. 60-61.

41. Hester Lynch Piozzi, Observations and Reflections: Made in the Course of a Journey Through France, Italy, and Germany, ed. Herbert Barrows (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1967), p. 383.

42. Nettl, pp. 57-65.

43. Eduard Mörike, "Mozart on the Way to Prague, " trans. Walter and Catherine Alison Philips, .: German Novellas of Realism, I, ed. Jeffrey L. Sammons (New York: Continuum, 1989), p. 255; Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozarts Briefe, ed. Wilhelm A. Bauer and Otto Erich Deutsch (Frankfurt: Fischer Bücherei, 1960), p. 149.

44. Giacomo Casanova, Casanovas Icosameron, trans. Rachel Zurer (New York: Jenna Press, 1986), pp. 20-22.

45. Nettl, p. 158.

46. Lorenzo Da Ponte, Memorie, .: Memorie, I libretti mozartiani: Le Nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cost fan tutte (Milan: Garzanti, 1981), p. 129.

47. Isabel de Madariaga, Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1981), p. 534; Andrew Steptoe, The Mozart Da Ponte Operas: The Cultural and Musical Background to Le Nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Cost fan tutte (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), p. 39.

48. Nettl, pp. 79-80.

49. Ibid., p. 193.

50. Ibid., pp. 201-202.

51. Ibid., pp. 216-221.

52. Da Ponte, Memorie, pp. 168-169.

53. Ibid., pp. 141-142.

54. Nettl, pp. 207-208.

55. Ibid., p. 238.

56. Jean Fabre, Stanislas-Auguste Poniatowski et l'Europe des Lumieres: Etude de Cosmopolitisme (Paris: Editions Ophrys, 1952), p. 462.

57. Da Ponte, Cosi fan tutte, .: Memorie, I libretti mozartiani: Le Nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan tutte (Milan: Garzanti, 1981), p. 622.

58. Ibid., p. 680.

59. Ibid., p. 685.

60. Johann Pezzl, Sketch of Vienna, .: H. C. Robbins Landon, Mozart and Vienna (New York: Schirmer, 1991), pp. 65-66.

61. Alexandre-Maurice Blanc de Lanautte, comte dHauterive, "Journal inedit dun voyage: de Constantinople à Jassi, capitale de la Moldavie dans lhiver de 1785," .: Memoire sur Iétat ancien et actuel de la Moldavie: Présenté à S. A. S. le prince Alexandre Ypsilanti, Hospodar régnant, en 1787, par le comte dHauterive (Bucharest: LInstitut darts graphiques Carol Gobi, 1902), p. 286; . : "Hauterive," La Grande Encyclopédie (Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1886-1902), vol. 19, pp. 935-936.

62. Hauterive, pp. 301, 305.

63. Ibid., p. 295.

64. Ibid., p. 299.

65. Ibid., pp. 293, 304.

66. Ibid., pp. 302-304.

67. Ibid., p. 305.

68. Ibid., pp. 306-307.

69. Ibid., pp. 307-308.

70. Ibid., pp. 309-310.

71. Ibid., pp. 310-311.

72. Ibid., p. 312.

73. Ibid., pp. 311-313.

74. Ibid., p. 315.

75. Ibid., p. 317.

76. Ibid., p. 318.

77. Ibid., p. 323.

78. Ibid., p. 327.

79. Elizabeth Craven, A Journey Through the Crimea to Constantinople: In a Series of Letters from the Right Honourable Elizabeth Lady Craven, to His Serene Highness the Margrave of Brandebourg, Anspach, and Bareith, Written in the Year MDCCLXXXVI (Dublin, 1789; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1970), pp. 361-362; . : "Anspach, Elizabeth," Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford Univ. Press), vol. I, pp. 508-509.

80. Craven, pp. 372, 377, 380.

81. Ibid., pp. 392-396.

82. Ibid., pp. 401-409.

83. Ibid., p. 5.

84. Ibid., pp. 146, 153, 156-157, 161-162.

85. Ibid., pp. 171-172.

86. Ibid., pp. 167-171.

87. Ibid., pp. 168, 174-175.

88. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Italian Journey: 1786-1788, trans. W. H. Auden and Elizabeth Mayer (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982), pp. 115-116.

89. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Iphigenia in Tauris, trans. Charles E. Passage (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1963), pp. 21-22.

90. Craven, pp. 184, 191.

91. Ibid., pp. 194, 200, 205, 214-217.

92. Ibid., p. 225.

93. Ibid., pp. 233-234.

94. Ibid., p. 234.

95. Ibid., p. 247.

96. Ibid., pp. 248-249.

97. Ibid., p. 249.

98. Louis-Philippe, comte de Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Ségur, vol. II, y .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à lhistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XX, éd. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), p. 87.

99. Louis-Philippe, comte de Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Ségur, vol. , .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à lhistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XIX, éd. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), pp. 428-429.

100. Ibid., I, p. 425.

101. Ibid., II, pp. 34, 41.

102. Ibid., I, p. 429.

103. Ibid., I, pp. 429-430, 434.

104. Ibid., I, p. 436.

105. Ibid., I, pp. 436-437.

106. Ibid., I, pp. 438-439.

107. Ibid., II, pp. 1-2.

108. Ibid., II, p. 4.

109. Ibid., II, p. 6.

110. Ibid., I, pp. 422-423; II, p. 14.

111. Ibid., II, pp. 13, 30.

112. Charles-Joseph, prince de Ligne, Correspondance et pensées du prince de Ligne, y .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à lhistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XX, éd. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), p. 72.

113. Ségur, II, p. 21.

114. Ibid., II, pp. 30-36.

115. Ibid., II, pp. 32, 41-43; Ligne, p. 69.

116. Ségur, II, p. 44.

117. Ibid., I, p. 423; Ligne, pp. 70-71.

118. Ségur, II, pp. 51, 55; Ligne, p. 75.

119. Ségur, II, p. 47.

120. Ibid., II, p. 54.

121. Ibid., II, pp. 57-58; Goethe, Italian Joumey, p. 318.

122. Ligne, p. 71; Goethe, Italian Joumey, p. 324.

123. Ségur, I, p. 374.

124. Ibid., II, p. 60; Ligne, p. 88.

125. Ségur, II, pp. 63-65.

126. Ibid., II, p. 64.

127. Ligne, pp. 73-74.

128. Ibid., p. 92.

129. Ségur, II, pp. 67-70; John T. Alexander, Catherine the Great: Life and Legend (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989), p. 260.

130. Ligne, pp. 77-81; Goethe, Italian Joumey, pp. 26, 116, 124.

131. Ligne, p. 82.

132. Ibid., pp. 82-85.

133. Ségur, II, p. 72.

134. Ibid., II, pp. 72-74.

135. Ligne, p. 89.

136. Ségur, II, p. 85.

137. Ibid., II, pp. 96-97.

138. Ibid., II, p. 97.

139. Ligne, p. 86.

140. Ségur, II, p. 88.

141. Ibid., II, p. 90.

142. Ibid., II, pp. 87-89.












1. Voltaire, Histoire de Charles XII (Paris: Garnier-Flammarion, 1968), p. 113; J. B. Harley, "Maps, Knowledge, and Power," y .: The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments, ed. Denis Cosgrove and Stephen Daniels (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988), pp. 277-312.

2. Nicolas Sanson, Nouvelle introduction à la Geographie pour lusage de Monseigneur le Dauphin: Par laquelle on peut apprendre en peu de temps et avec facilité la Geographie, et la Division de toutes les parties du Monde: les Empires, les Monarchies, Royaumes et Etats qui le composent séparément (Paris: Chez Hubert Jaillot, 1695), p. 25.

3. Leo Bagrow, History of Cartography, 2nd ed., ed. R. A. Skelton, trans. D. L. Paisey (Chicago: Precedent Publishing, 1985), pp. 174-175; . : Leo Bagrow, A History of the Cartography of Russia up to 1600, ed. Henry W. Castner (Ontario: Walker Press, 1975); Leo Bagrow, A History of Russian Cartography up to 1800, ed. Henry W. Castner (Ontario: Walker Press, 1975).

4. Robert and Robert de Vaugondy, Atlas Universel, vol. I (Paris, 1757), p. 22.

5. Dmitri von Mohrenschildt, Russia in the Intellectual Life of Eighteenth-Century France (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1936), p. 212.

6. William Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, from Travels in Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, 5th ed. (London, 1802; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1970), III, pp. 210-211.

7. M. S. Anderson, Britains Discovery of Russia 1553-1815 (New York: St. Martins Press, 1958), p. 80.

8. Jean Fabre, Stanislas-Auguste Poniatowski et IEurope des Lumières: Etude de Cosmopolitisme (Paris: Editions Ophrys, 1952), pp. 380, 486, 669, note 62.

9. Fabre, p. 381.

10. Joseph Marshall, Travels Through Germany, Russia, and Poland in the Years 1769 and 1770 (London, 1772; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1971), pp. 179-180.

11. Marshall, pp. 179, 183.

12. Elizabeth Craven, A Journey Through the Crimea to Constantinople: In a Series of Letters from the Right Honourable Elizabeth Lady Craven, to His Serene Highness the Margrave of Brandebourg, Anspach, and Bareith, Written in the Year MDCCLXXXVI (Dublin, 1789; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1970), pp. 249-250, 409.

13. Robert, Atlas Universel, p. 30.

14. Ibid., p. 21, 30.

15. Ibid., p. 30; . : François de Dainville, S.J., Le Langage des Géographes: Termes, Signes, Couleurs des Cartes Anciennes 1500-1800 (Paris: Editions A. et J. Picard, 1964).

16. Robert, Atlas Universel, p. 22.

17. Adam Zamoyski, The Polish Way: A Thousand-Year History of the Poles and Their Culture (New York: Franklin Watts, 1988), figure 112; Marshall, p. 184.

18. Norman Davies, Gods Playground: A History of Poland, vol. I (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1984), p. 542.

19. Piotr S. Wandycz, The United States and Poland (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1980), p. 49.

20. Sanson, pp. 3-7.

21. W. H. Parker, "Europe: How Far?" The Geographical Journal 126, Part 3 (Sept. 1960): 285.

22. Abel Mansuy, Le Monde Slave et les Classiques Français aux XVIeXVIIe siècles, preface de Charles Diehl (Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion, 1912), pp. 10-11; Parker, p. 281.

23. Mansuy, p. 16.

24. Samuel Fiszman, "The Significance of the Polish Renaissance and Baroque for Eastern Slavic Nations," .: The Polish Renaissance in Its European Context, ed. Samuel Fiszman (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1988), pp. 238-242.

25. Mark Bassin, "Russia Between Europe and Asia: The Ideological Construction of Geographical Space," Slavic Review 50, no. 1 (Spring 1991); 5-7.

26. Philipp Johann von Strahlenberg, An Historico-Geographical Description of the North and Eastern Parts of Europe and Asia; But more particularly of Russia, Siberia, and Great Tartary; Both in their Ancient and Modern State: Together with an Entire New Polyglot-Table of the Dialects of 32 Tartarian Nations; As Also, a Large and Accurate Map of those Countries; and variety of Cuts, representing Asiatick-Scythian Antiquities. Written Originally in High German by Mr. Philip John von Strahlenberg, a Swedish Officer, Thirteen Years Captive in those Parts (London: J. Brotherton, J. Hazard, W. Meadows, T. Cox, T. Astley, S. Austen, L. Gulliver, and C. Corbet, 1738), pp. 16-17.

27. Parker, p. 287.

28. Homann, "Europa," Nürnberg, 1720 (Harvard Univ., Map Collection); Desnos, "L'Europe divisée selon létendue de ses principales parties," Paris, 1772 (Harvard).

29. Delisle, "L'Europe," Paris, 1700 (Harvard); Hass, "Europa," Nürnberg, 1743; rpt. 1777 (Harvard).

30. Robert, Atlas Universel, p. 21.

31. Voltaire, Histoire de lempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, .: vres complètes de Voltaire, vol. 16 (Paris, 1878; rpt. Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint Limited, 1967), p. 408.

32. Gyula Antalffy, A Thousand Years of Travel in Old Hungary, trans. Elisabeth Hoch (Hungary: Kner, 1980), pp. 117-118.

33. Béla Köpeczi, La France et la Hongrie au début du XVIIIe siècle: Etude dhistoire des relations diplomatiques et dhistoire des idées (Budapest: Akadémi Kiadö, 1971), pp. 537-538; Antalffy, p. 177.

34. Anderson, p. 62.

35. Strahlenberg, pp. 5-6.

36. Anderson, p. 85; Mohrenschildt, p. 187; Edward Godfrey Cox, A Reference Guide to the Literature of Travel, Vol. I (Univ. of Washington Publications in Language and Literature, Vol. 9, Nov. 1935; rpt. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969), p. 194.

37. Albert Lortholary, Le Mirage russe en Prance au XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Boivin, 1951), p. 61.

38. Köpeczi, pp. 376, 528.

39. Ibid., pp. 381, 585-586.

40. Ibid., p. 458.

41. Ibid., pp. 455, 464, 470, 473, 481, 485-486.

42. Ibid., pp. 346-349, 546.

43. Ibid., pp. 386, 488.

44. Ibid., p. 593.

45. Moll, "A New Map of Germany, Hungary, Transylvania, and the Suisse," 1712 (Harvard); Zürner, "Europa," 1712 (Harvard); Delisle, "Carte dEurope," Paris, 1724 (Harvard); De Witt, "Accuratissima Europae, " Amsterdam, 1730 (Harvard).

46. Homann, "Europa, " Nürnberg, 1720 (Harvard); Homann, "Europa," Nürnberg, 1730 (Harvard); Hass, "Europa," Nürnberg, 1743; rpt. 1777 (Harvard).

47. Nicolas Gueudeville, "Dissertation sur la Hongrie et sur la Bohème," .: Atlas Historique ou Nouvelle Introduction à lHistoire, à la Chronologie, et à la Geographie Ancienne et Moderne, vol. II, Henri Abraham Châtelain (Amsterdam: Chez lHonoré & Châtelain, 1720), pp. 71-72.

48. "Carte Ancienne et Modeme: Des Différents Etats et Pays au long du Danube," Atlas Historique ou Nouvelle Introduction à lHistoire, à la Chronologie, et à la Geographie Ancienne et Modeme, vol. II, Henri Abraham Châtelain (Amsterdam: Chez lHonoré & Châtelain, 1720).

49. "Carte Généalogique des Rois de Hongrie et de Bohème; et lAbrégé du Gouvernement de ces deux Royaumes," Atlas Historique (1720).

50. Gueudeville, Atlas Historique (1720), p. 83.

51. "Carte du Royaume de Bohème, " Atlas Historique (1720).

52. "Nouvelle Carte de la Hongrie, " Atlas Historique (1720).

53. Köpeczi, pp. 522-524.

54. Gueudeville, Atlas Historique (1720), pp. 68-71.

55. Karl A. Roider, Austrias Eastern Question 1700-1790 (Princeton, N. J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1982), p. 44.

56. Ibid., p. 52.

57. Ibid., p. 57.

58. Voltaire, Histoire de Charles XII, pp. 89-90; Theodore Besterman, Voltaire, 3rd éd. (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1976), p. 640.

59. Jean Fabre, "Stanislas Leszczynski et le mouvement philosophique en France au XVIIIe siècle," .: Utopie et Institutions au XVIIIe siècle: Le Pragmatisme des Lumières, éd. Pierre Francastel (Paris and the Hague: Mouton, 1963), pp. 25-41; . : Emanuel Rostworowski, "Stanisław Leszczyński et les Lumières à la Polonaise, " .: Utopie et Institutions au XVIIIe siècle: Le Pragmatisme des Lumières, éd. Pierre Francastel (Paris and the Hague: Mouton, 1963), pp. 15-24.

60. Louis de Jaucourt, "Pologne, " Encyclopédie: ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, nouvelle impression en facsimile de la première édition de 1751-1780 (Stuttgart: Friedrich Frommann Verlag, 1967), vol. XII, p. 931.

61. Robert, Atlas Universel, p. 35.

62. Robert de Vaugondy, "A New and Accurate Map of Europe, " London 1770 (Harvard).

63. Roider, pp. 72-73, 80.

64. Anderson, p. 83; Robert, Atlas Universel, p. 30.

65. Voltaire, Histoire de la guerre de 1741 (Paris: Editions Gamier Frères 1971), p. 33.

66. Ibid., pp. 33-34.

67. Jan Lavicka, "Voltaire et la Bohème, " Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, vol. 219 (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1983), p. 109.

68. Köpeczi, p. 553.

69. Anderson, pp. 139-140; Voltaire, Histoire de l'empire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, p. 405.

70. Georges Gusdorf, Les Principes de lapensée au siècle des lumières (Paris-Payot, 197i), p. 128.

71. Frederick II, King of Prussia, LHistoire de temps, .: Oeuvres posthumes de Frédéric II, roi de Prusse, vol. I (Berlin: Chez Voss 1788), p. 69.

72. Oliver Goldsmith, The Citizen of the World, ed. Austin Dobson (London: J. M. Dent, 1934), chapter LXXXVII, pp. 240-241.

73. James Porter, Turkey; Its History and Progress: From the Journals and Correspondence of Sir James Porter, Vol. I (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1854), p. 8.

74. Mrs. James Porter, "Letter from Lady Porter to her sister, Mdlle de Hochepied, at Pera, containing an account of Sir James Porters journey from Constantinople to London, with two children, Greek nurse and servant, and accompanied by several gentlemen; among others, the learned Jesuit, Father Boscowitz, who has published a detail of this journey," .: James Porter, Turkey; Its History and Progress: From the Journals and Correspondence of Sir James Porter, Vol. I (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1854), p. 379.

75. Mrs. James Porter, p. 374.

76. "Boscovich," Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Vol. XIII (Rome, 1971), pp. 221-230.

77. Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, Giornale di un Viaggio da Costantinopoli in Polonia dellabate Kuggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (Milan: Giordano Editore, 1966), p. 5.

78. Ibid., pp. 86, 110.

79. Ibid., pp. 3-4.

80. Ibid., p. 6.

81. Ibid., p. 8.

82. Rocque, "Carte Generale des Postes de lEurope," 1758 (Harvard)

83. Boscovich, pp. 21-22.

84. Ibid., p. 31.

85. Ibid., p. 34.

86. Ibid., p. 35.

87. Ibid., pp. 37-42, 50.

88. Ibid., pp. 59-62.

89. Ibid., p. 62.

90. Ibid., pp. 69-71.

91. Ibid., pp. 74, 79, 87, 102.

92. Ibid., pp. 72-75, 89-90.

93. Ibid., pp. 90-92, 106-107.

94. Ibid., pp. 125-126.

95. Ibid., pp. 122, 127-128.

96. Ibid., p. 65.

97. Mrs. James Porter, p. 377.

98. Ibid., p. 390.

99. Boscovich, p. 9.

100. Hass, "Europa," Nürnberg, 1743; rpt. 1777 (Harvard); "Le Voyage dun Danois," 1744 (Harvard).

101. Boscovich, pp. xx, 190-191.

102. Robert Darnton, The Business of Enlightenment: A Publishing History of the Encydopédie 1775-1800 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1979), p. 8.

103. "Bohème," Encydopédie: ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, nouvelle impression en facsimile de la première édition de 1751-1780 (Stuttgart: Friedrich Frommann Verlag, 1967), vol. II, p. 294.

104. "Bulgarie," Encydopedie, II, p. 462.

105. John Lough, "Louis, Chevalier de Jaucourt (1704-1780): A Biographical Sketch, " The Encydopédie in Eighteenth-Century England and Other Studies (Newcastle upon Tyne: Oriel Press, 1970), pp. 25, 49-51.

106. Louis de Jaucourt, "Hongrie," Encydopédie, VIII, p. 284.

107. Jaucourt, "Hongrie," Encydopédie, VIII, pp. 284-285.

108. Ibid., VIII, p. 285.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., VIII, pp. 285-286.

111. Ibid., VIII, p. 286.

112. Jaucourt, "Pologne," Encydopédie, XII, p. 925.

113. Ibid., XII, pp. 928-933.

114. Ibid., XII, pp. 925, 929, 934.

115. Ibid., XII, pp. 930-931.

116. Ibid., XII, p. 931.

117. Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, III, pp. 369-376.

118. Jaucourt, "Pologne," Encydopédie, XII, pp. 931-934.

119. Jaucourt, "Russie," Encydopédie, XIV, p. 442; Voltaire, Histoire de Iempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, p. 403.

120. Jaucourt, "Russie," Encydopédie, XIV, p. 443; Voltaire, Histoire de Iempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, pp. 419-421.

121. Jaucourt, "Russie," Encydopédie, XIV, p. 445.

122. Jaucourt, "Tartares," Encydopédie, XV, p. 926; . : Alan W. Fisher, The Crimean Tatars (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1978).

123. Sanson, pp. 3-5.

124. Delisle, "LEurope," Paris, 1700 (Harvard); Zürner, "Europa," 1712 (Harvard).

125. Jaucourt, "Tartares," Encydopédie, XV, p. 920.

126. Ibid., XV, p. 921.

127. Robert de Vaugondy, Nouvel Atlas Portatif (Paris: Chez Robert, 1762), maps III, IV.

128. Jaucourt, "Tartares, " Encydopédie, XV, pp. 921-923.

129. Ibid., XV, pp. 924-926.

130. Jaucourt, "Europe, " Encydopédie, VI, pp. 211-212.

131. Robert de Vaugondy, "Géographie," Encydopédie, VII, pp. 611-612.













1.


1. Voltaire and Catherine, Correspondence, .: Documents of Catherine the Great: The Correspondence with Voltaire and the Instruction of 1767, ed. W. F. Reddaway (1931; New York: Russell & Russell, 1971), pp. 58, 77.

2. Rocque, "Carte Generale des Postes de lEurope," 1758 (Harvard).

3. Voltaire and Catherine, pp. 79, 124.

4. Ibid., p. 133.

5. Ibid., p. 181.

6. Ibid., p. 186.

7. Ibid., p. 1.

8. Ibid., p. 2; . : David Griffiths, "To Live Forever: Catherine II, Voltaire, and the Pursuit of Immortality," .: Russia and the World of the Eighteenth Century (Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishers, 1988), pp. 446-468; Isabel de Madariaga, Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1981), pp. 327-342; John T. Alexander, Catherine the Great: Life and Legend (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989), pp. 97-142.

9. Carolyn H. Wilberger, Voltaires Russia; Window on the East, .: Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, Vol. CLXIV, ed. Theodore Besterman (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation at the Taylor Institution, 1976), pp.54, 141.

10. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, trans. Maurice Cranston (London: Penguin, 1968), p. 90.

11. Voltaire, Histoire de Iempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, .: vres completes de Voltaire, Vol. 16 (Paris, 1878; rpt. Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint Limited, 1967), pp. 377, 427.

12. Voltaire and Catherine, p. 3.

13. Theodore Besterman, Voltaire, 3rd ed. (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1976), p. 406.

14. Voltaire and Catherine, pp. 3-6.

15. Ibid., pp. 48, 51.

16. Ibid., pp. 6-7.

17. Albert Lortholary, Le Mirage russe en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Boivin, 1951).

18. Lortholary, pp. 74-76; Dmitri von Mohrenschildt, Russia in the Intellectual Life of Eighteenth-Century France (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1936), pp. 275-280.

19. Wilberger, p. 27.

20. Mohrenschildt, p. 32; Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, Memoirs of Louis XIV and his Court and of the Regency, vol. III (New York: Collier, 1910), p. 1011.

21. Lortholary, pp. 23-25.

22. Wilberger, p. 76.

23. Voltaire, Histoire de Charles XII (Paris: Gamier-Flammarion, 1968), p. 51.

24. Charles Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, trans. Thomas Nugent (New York: Hafner, 1949), I, p. 299.

25. Montesquieu, I, p. 299.

26. Lortholary, p. 33; Bêla Köpeczi, La France et la Hongrie au début du XVIIIe siècle: Etude dhistoire des relations diplomatiques et dhistoire des idées (Budapest: Akademi Kiado, 1971), pp. 603-604.

27. Wilberger, p. 32.

28. Voltaire, "Anecdotes sur le czar Pierre le Grand," .: Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, Vol. 23 (Paris, 1878; rpt. Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint, 1967), pp. 281-293.

29. Wilberger, pp. 33, 49.

30. Lortholary, p. 48.

31. Wilberger, p. 41.

32. Ibid., p. 43.

33. Ibid., pp. 124-127; Peter Gay, The Enlightenment: An Interpretation: The Science of Freedom (New York: W. W. Norton, 1977), p. 67.

34. Wilberger, pp. 52-53.

35. Ibid., pp. 37-38, 54-61.

36. Ibid., pp. 119-120; Voltaire, Histoire de Iempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, p. 586.

37. Wilberger, pp. 120-122; Voltaire, Histoire de Iempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, p. 589.

38. Wilberger, p. 46.

39. Ibid., pp. 45-47.

40. Voltaire, Histoire de Iempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, pp. 408, 415, 427.

41. Ibid., pp. 506-509.

42. Wilberger, pp. 278-279.

43. Voltaire, "Le Russe à Paris," .: Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, vol. 10 (Paris, 1878; rpt. Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint Limited, 1967), p. 121.

44. Voltaire, Histoire de lempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, pp. 456, 468.

45. Voltaire and Catherine, pp. 9-10, 15.

46. Ibid., pp. 15-18.

47. Voltaire, Histoire de Iempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, p. 408.

48. Voltaire and Catherine, pp. 17-9; Voltaire, Histoire de Iempire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand, p. 377.

49. Peter Gay, Voltaires Politics: The Poet as Realist, 2nd ed. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1988), p. 180.

50. Voltaire and Catherine, p. 20.

51. Ibid., p. 23.

52. Ibid., pp. 25-27.

53. Ibid., pp. 28-29.

54. Ibid., pp. 33-34.

55. Ibid., p. 34.

56. Ibid., p. 35.

57. Ibid., pp. 38, 48.

58. Ibid., p. 60.

59. Ibid., pp. 73, 81-83, 90, 97.

60. Ibid., pp. 93, 100-101.

61. Ibid., pp. 117, 123-126.

62. Ibid., pp. 148-150.

63. Ibid., p. 162.

64. Ibid., p. 172.

65. Ibid., pp. 186-187.

66. Karl A. Roider, Austrias Eastern Question 1700-1790 (Princeton, N. J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1982), pp. 132, 156-157.

67. Voltaire, Essai sur les moeurs, .: Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, vol. III (Paris: Chez Furne, 1835), pp. 607-609.

68. Voltaire and Catherine, pp. 84, 187.

69. Ibid., pp. 118-119.

70. Ibid., pp. 138, 149.

71. Ibid., pp. 154-161.

72. Ibid., pp. 161-163.

73. Ibid., p. 171.

74. Ibid., pp. 169, 176, 186.

75. Lortholary, pp. 174-176.

76. Giacomo Casanova, History of My Life, trans. Willard Trask, vol. 10 (London: Longman, 1971), pp. 103, 141-142.

77. Rudolf Eric Raspe, The Travels and Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchausen (London: Dedalus, 1988), p. 75.

78. Mohrenschildt, p. 145; Lortholary, pp. 90-91; Alexander, p. 14.

79. Lortholary, pp. 97-98.

80. Mohrenschildt, p. 94.

81. Lortholary, pp. 179-181.

82. Voltaire and Catherine, p. 203; Lortholary, pp. 184-186; Louis-Philippe, comte de Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Segur, vol. , .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à lhistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XIX, ed. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), pp. 442-443.

83. Lortholary, pp. 212-213.

84. Voltaire and Catherine, p. 192; Maurice Tourneux, Diderot et Catherine II (Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1899), pp. 75-76.

85. Tourneux, p. 83.

86. Denis Diderot, "Entretiens avec Catherine II" (1773), .: Oeuvres politiques, ed. Paul Vernière (Paris: Editions Gamier Frères, 1963), pp. 257-258, 326.

87. Diderot, "Entretiens," p. 260; . : Arthur Wilson, "Diderot in Russia, 1773-1774," .: The Eighteenth-Century in Russia, ed. J. G. Garrard (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973), pp. 166-197; Isabel de Madariaga, "Catherine and the Philosophes," .: Russia and the West in the Eighteenth Century (Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Partners, 1983), pp. 30-52.

88. Diderot, "Entretiens," pp. 265-66.

89. Mohrenschildt, pp. 257-258.

90. Diderot, "Entretiens," pp. 266-67; Tourneux, p. 492.

91. Mohrenschildt, p. 55.

92. Diderot, "Entretiens," p. 301.

93. Ibid., p. 302.

94. Ibid., pp. 309-310.

95. Lortholary, pp. 217-218.

96. Diderot, "Entretiens," p. 326.

97. Tourneux, p. 472.

98. Ibid., pp. 475-476.

99. Ibid., pp. 477, 481-482.

100. Ibid., p. 482.

101. Ibid., pp. 485-489.

102. Ibid., p. 492.

103. Lortholary, pp. 236, 379, note 146.

104. Ségur, I, pp. 444-445.

105. Diderot, "Observations sur le Nakaz" (1774), .: Oeuvres politiques, ed. Paul Vernière (Paris: Editions Gamier Frères, 1963), pp. 343-345.

106. Diderot, "Observations, " p. 349.

107. Ibid., pp. 350-351.

108. Ibid., p. 351.

109. Voltaire and Catherine, p. 190.

110. Ibid., p. 194.

111. Ibid., p. 195.

112. Ibid., p. 196.

113. Ibid., pp. 198-201.

114. Ibid., pp. 206, 213.











2.


1. William Richardson, Anecdotes of the Russian Empire: In a Series of Letters Written, a Few Years Ago, from St. Petersburg (London, 1784; rpt. London: Frank Cass, 1968), pp. 401-403; John T. Alexander, Catherine the Great: Life and Legend (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989), p. 98.

2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Considerations sur le gouvernement de Pologne, .: Discours sur léconomie politique, Projetde constitution pour la Corse, Considerations sur le gouvernement de Pologne, ed. Barbara de Negroni (Paris: Flammarion, 1990), p. 163.

3. Rousseau, p. 163.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., pp. 164-165.

6. Ibid., pp. 165-166, 211.

7. Ibid., pp. 170-171.

8. Ibid., p. 171.

9. Ibid., p. 173.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid., p. 177.

12. Ibid., p. 178; . : Jerzy Michalski, Rousseau sarmacki republikanizm (Warsawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1977).

13. Jean Starobinski, Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Transparency and Obstruction, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 145.

14. Rousseau, p. 261.

15. Marietta Martin, Une Française à Varsovie en 1766: Madame Geoffrin chez le roi de Pologne Stanislas-Auguste (Paris: Bibliothèque Polonaise, 1936), pp. 27, 42; Pierre, marquis de Ségur, Le Royaume de la rue Saint-Honoré: Madame Geoffrin et sa fille (Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1897), p. 288.

16. Marie Thérèse Rodet, Madame Geoffrin, and Stanislas-Auguste Poniatowski, Correspondance inédite du roi Stanislas-Auguste Poniatowski et de Madame Geoffrin (1764-1777), ed. Charles de Mouy (Paris: E. Pion, 1875), p. 239; Martin, p. 78.

17. G. P. Gooch, "Four French Salons," .: Catherine the Great and Other Studies (1954; rpt. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1966), p. 117.

18. Martin, p. 12.

19. Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, pp. 102-103.

20. Ibid., p. 103.

21. Ibid., p. 108.

22. Ibid., pp. 114-115.

23. Martin, p. 27.

24. Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, pp. 115, 137, 140-142.

25. Ségur (Pierre), Le Royaume, p. 432; Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, Correspondance, p. 131.

26. Ségur (Pierre), Le Royaume, pp. 434-436.

27. Ibid., pp. 437-438.

28. Ibid., pp. 442-443.

29. Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, p. 143.

30. Ibid., pp. 147-148.

31. Ibid., p. 150; Ségur (Pierre), Le Royaume, p. 235.

32. Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, pp. 151-152.

33. Ibid., p. 153.

34. Ibid., pp. 154-156.

35. Ibid., p. 158.

36. Jean Fabre, Stanislas-Auguste Poniatowski et lEurope des Lumieres: Etude de Cosmopolitisme (Paris: Editions Ophrys, 1952), pp. 630-631, note 68; Albert Lortholary, Le Mirage russe en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Boivin, 1951), pp. 162-163.

37. Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, pp. 162-163, 167.

38. Ibid., p. 168.

39. Ibid., pp. 112, 167.

40. Ibid., p. 174.

41. Ségur (Pierre), Le Royaume, p. 447.

42. Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, pp. 177-178.

43. Ibid., pp. 180, 193.

44. Ibid., pp. 205-207, 223-224; Martin, p. 33.

45. Ségur (Pierre), Le Royaume, pp. 264-267, 281.

46. Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, p. 233.

47. Ibid., pp. 239-241.

48. Ségur (Pierre), Le Royaume, p. 272.

49. Ibid., p. 273.

50. Jacques Derrida, Of Grammatology, trans. Gaytri Chakravorty Spivak (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1976), pp. 118-140.

51. Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, pp. 242-244.

52. Ibid., p. 349.

53. Martin, p. 35.

54. Stanislas-Auguste Poniatowski, Mémoires du roi Stanislas-Auguste Poniatowski, vol. I (St. Petersburg: lAcademie Imperiale des Sciences, 1914), pp. 567-568.

55. Martin, pp. 53-54; Fabre, p. 305.

56. Ségur (Pierre), Le Royaume, pp. 273-274.

57. Ibid., pp. 230, 461.

58. Rousseau, p. 259.

59. Martin, p. 76.

60. Mme Geoffrin and Stanislas-Auguste, p. 250.

61. Ibid., p. 276.

62. Ibid., pp. 265-274, 294.

63. Ibid., pp. 315-316.

64. Ibid., pp. 321, 329.

65. Ibid., p. 355.

66. Ibid., p. 364.

67. Ibid., pp. 365-366.

68. Ibid., pp. 326-327, 336.

69. Ibid., pp. 343-344.

70. Ibid., pp. 359, 382, 387, 432.

71. Ibid., pp. 349, 379-380.

72. Ibid., p. 443.

73. Ibid., pp. 451, 456.

74. Ibid., pp. 464-466.

75. Ibid., pp. 470-471, 475-477.

76. Rousseau, p. 172.

77. Voltaire, Candide, trans. John Butt (London: Penguin, 1947), chapter 26; Wanda Dzwigala, "Voltaires Sources on the Polish Dissident Question," Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, Vol. 241 (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1986), pp. 191-192; Emanuel Rostworowski, "Républicanisme Sarmate et les Lumières, " .: Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, ed. Theodore Besterman, Vol. XXVI (Geneva: Institut et Musée Voltaire, 1963), p. 1417; Fabre, p. 316; . : Stanisław Kot, Rzeczpospolita Polska w literaturze politycznej Zachodu (Kraków: Nakladem Krakowskiej Spólki Wydawniczej, 1919); Ryszard W. Woloszynski, "La Pologne vue par IEurope au XVIIIe siècle, " Acta Poloniae historica (1965): 22-42; Woloszyński, Polska w opiniach francuzów: Rulhière i jego wspólczesni (Warsawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1964).

78. Voltaire, "Essai historique et critique sur les dissensions des églises de Pologne" (1767), Oeuvres de Voltaire: Mélanges Historiques, vol. II (Paris: P. Pourrat Frères, 1839), pp. 57-60; Fabre, p. 634, note 144.

79. Emanuel Rostworowski, "Voltaire et la Pologne, " Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, ed. Theodore Besterman, vol. LXII (Geneva: Institut et Musee Voltaire, 1968), p. 114; Fabre, p. 323.

80. Voltaire, "Discours aux confédérés catholiques de Kaminieck en Pologne, par le major Kaiserling, au service du roi de Prusse" (1768), Oeuvres de Voltaire: Politiques et Législation, vol. II (Paris: P. Pourrat Frères, 1839), pp. 154, 165-166.

81. Voltaire and Catherine, Correspondence, .: Documents of Catherine the Great: The Correspondence with Voltaire and the Instruction of 1767, ed. W. F. Reddaway (1931; New York: Russell & Russell, 1971), p. 109; Dzwigala, p. 198.

82. Jean-Paul Marat, Les Aventures du jeune comte Potowski, éd. Claire Nicolas- Lelièvre (Paris: Renaudot, 1989), pp. 118, 130.

83. Marek Tomaszewski, "LUnivers héroique polonais dans Les Amours du chevalier de Faublas et son impact sur limaginaire social à la fin due XVIIIe siècle," Revue de Littérature Comparée, no. 2 (Apr.-June 1990): 430-431.

84. Voltaire, Les Lois de Minos, y .: Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, vol. 5, Théatre (Paris: Perronneau, 1817), p. 296.

85. Fabre, p. 249.

86. Marat, Les Aventures, p. 256; Dzwigala, p. 201; M. Romain-Cornut, Voltaire: complice et conseiller du partage de la Pologne, 2nd éd. (Paris: Jacques Lecoffre, 1846), pp. 17-21.

87. Ambroise Jobert, Magnats polonais et physiocrates français (1767-1774) (Paris: Librairie Droz, 1941), p. 20.

88. Jobert, pp. 51, 86; Larry Wolff, The Vatican and Poland in the Age of the Partitions: Diplomatic and Cultural Encounters at the Warsaw Nunciature (New York and Boulder: Columbia Univ. Press, East European Monographs, 1988), chapter VII.

89. Jobert, pp. 24-27.

90. Ibid., pp. 27-32.

91. Ibid., pp. 36-38; . : Kasimir Opalek, "Les Physiocrates et leur role dans le renouveau culturel au siècle des Lumières en Pologne," y .: Utopie et Institutions au XVIIIe siècle: Le Pragmatisme des Lumières, éd. Pierre Francastel (Paris and the Hague: Mouton, 1963), pp. 169-184.

92. Jobert, pp. 45-48; Rousseau, p. 220.

93. Jobert, p. 57; Wolff, chapter V.

94. Jobert, pp. 60-62.

95. Ibid., pp. 64-66.

96. Ibid., pp. 67-71.

97. Ibid., pp. 72-73, 77.

98. Ibid., pp. 79-82.

99. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (London: Penguin, 1982), pp. 345-346.

100. Ibid., p. 308.

101. Claude Carloman de Rulhière, A History or Anecdotes of the Revolution in Russia in the Year 1762 (London, 1797; rpt. New York: Arno Press, and New York Times, 1970), p. 1.

102. Alice Chevalier, Claude-Carloman de Rulhière, premier historien de la Pologne: sa vie et son oeuvre historique (Paris: Les Editions Domat-Montchrestien, 1939), pp. 105-114; Ségur (Pierre), Le Royaume, pp. 220-224.

103. Rulhière, Anecdotes of the Revolution in Russia, pp. viii-xi, 52; Chevalier, pp. 74, 115-116.

104. Chevalier, pp. 43-44.

105. Claude Carloman de Rulhière, Revolutions de Pologne, vol. I, éd. Christien Ostrowski (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1862), p. 1.

106. Rulhière, Revolutions de Pologne, I, pp. 6-7.

107. Chevalier, pp. 121-22.

108. Ibid., pp. 152-154.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid., p. 155.

111. Ibid., pp. 160-62, 166, 175.

112. Ibid., pp. 233, 330-333.

113. Giacomo Casanova, Istoria delie Turbolenze della Polonia, ed. Giacinto Spagnoletti (Naples: Guida Editori, 1974), pp. 100, 447.

114. Casanova, p. 54; Chevalier, p. 250; Fabre, p. 7.

115. Chevalier, pp. 244, 295.

116. Ibid., pp. 168-169, 182-183.

117. Ibid., pp. 372-380.

118. Fabre, p. 571, note 42.

119. Marquis de Sade, Aline et Valcour, y .: Oeuvres, éd. Michel Delon, vol. I (Paris: Gallimard, 1990), pp. 852-853.

120. Fabre, p. 510; . : Emanuel Rostworowski, Ostatni Król Rzeczypospolitej: geneza upadek konstytucji 3 maja (Warsawa: Wiedza Powszechna, 1966).

121. Marcel Handelsman, "La Constitution polonaise du 3 mai 1791 et lopinion française, " y .: La Revolution Française, vol. LVIII (Paris, 1910), pp. 416, 425, 429, 433.

122. Fabre, pp. 27, 575, note 28.

123. M. S. Anderson, Britains Discovery of Russia 165-169 (New York: St. Martins Press, 1958), pp. 165-169.

124. Lortholary, p. 263; Anderson, p. 193; Robert Arnold, Geschichte der Deutschen Polenlitteratur: von den Anfängen bis 1800 (Halle: Max Niemeyer, 1900), p. 168.

125. Thomas Campbell, "Poland, " .: English Romantic Writers, ed. David Perkins (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967), p. 603.

126. Lortholary, pp. 263-264.

127. Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, The Memoirs of Elisabeth Vigée-Le Brun, trans. Siân Evans (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1989), pp. 161, 189; Dmitri von Mohrenschildt, Russia in the Intellectual Life of Eighteenth-Century France (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1936), pp. 25-26.

128. Vigée-Lebrun, pp. 208, 366; Fabre, p. 552.

129. William Cobbett, Letters to the Right Honourable Lord Hawkesbury, 2nd ed. (London: Cobbett and Morgan, 1802), p. 82.

130. George Kennan, Memoirs 1925-1950 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1967), pp. 29-30.

131. Cobbett, p. 83.

132. Kennan, p. 26.













1. 㳿


1. Nicolae Iorga, Les Voyageurs Français dans lOrient Européen (Paris: Boivin, 1928), p. 105.

2. Charles de Peyssonnel, Observations historiques et géographiques, sur les peuples barbares qui ont habité les bords du Danube à du Pont-Euxin (Paris: Chez N. M. Tilliard, 1765), pp. 1-2.

3. Ibid., pp. 4-7.

4. Ibid., p. 30.

5. Ibid., p. 39.

6. Ibid., pp. 50-51.

7. Ibid., pp. 194-195.

8. Robert and Robert de Vaugondy, Atlas Universel, vol. I (Paris, 1757), maps 4, 12.

9. Jean-Baptiste dAnville, A Complete Body of Ancient Geography (London: Robert Sayer, 1771), maps 1, 3.

10. François Hartog, The Mirror of Herodotus: The Representation of the Other in the Writing of History, trans. Janet Lloyd (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1988), p. 30.

11. Albert Lortholary, Le Mirage russe en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Boivin, 1951), p. 297, note 87; Albert Gyergyai, "Un correspondant hongrois de Voltaire: le comte Fekete de Galanta," y .: Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, vol. 25, ed. Theodore Besterman (Geneva: Institut et Musée Voltaire, 1963), p. 789.

12. Peyssonnel, pp. vii-ix, xv-xvi.

13. Ibid., pp. xxxvi-xl.

14. Ibid., pp. 9-10, 71.

15. Pierre-Charles Levesque, Histoire de Russie, vol. I (Hambourg et Brunswick: Chez Pierre-François Fauche, 1800), pp. viii-ix.

16. Claude Carloman de Rulhière, Revolutions de Pologne, vol. I, ed. Christien Ostrowski (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1862), pp. 1-2; Levesque, I, pp. 1-6.

17. Levesque, I, pp. 55-56.

18. Dmitri von Mohrenschildt, Russia in the Intellectual Life of Eighteenth-Century France (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1936), p. 227.

19. Claude-Louis de Sacy, Histoire générale de Hongrie: Depuis la première invasion des Huns, jusquà nos jours, vol. I (Yverdon, 1780), pp. vii, xxxi.

20. Iorga, pp. 104-108; Robert Darnton, Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment in France (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1968), pp. 98-100; Jean-Louis Carra, Historié de la Moldavie et de la Valachie (Jassy: Société Typographique des Deux-Ponts, 1777), pp. ix, xvi-xvii, 220.

21. Alexandre-Maurice Blanc de Lanautte, comte dHauterive, Mémoire sur létat ancien et actuel de la Moldavie: présenté à S. A. S. le prince Alexandre Ypsilanti, Hospodar régnant, en 1787, par le comte dHauterive (Bucharest: LInstitut darts graphiques Carol Gobi, 1902), pp. 20-22.

22. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Considerations sur le gouvernement de Pologne, y .: Discours sur léconomie politique, Projet de constitution pour la Corse, Considerations sur le gouvernement de Pologne, ed. Barbara de Negroni (Paris: Flammarion, 1990), pp. 170-177.

23. Hauterive, Mémoire, pp. 42-44; Hauterive, "La Moldavie en 1785: faisant suite au journal dun voyage de Constantinople à Jassy, " y .: Mémoire sur létat ancien et actuel de la Moldavie: présenté à S. A. S. le prince Alexandre Ypsilanti, Hospodar régnant, en 1787, par le comte dHauterive (Bucharest: LInstitut darts graphiques Carol Göbl, 1902), pp. 357-358.

24. Hauterive, Mémoire, p. 236.

25. Ibid., p. 176; Hauterive, "La Moldavie," p. 359.

26. Hauterive, "La Moldavie," pp. 331-332.

27. Hauterive, Mémoire, pp. 252, 258.

28. Ibid., pp. 264-366.

29. Ibid., pp. 266-270.

30. Ibid., p. 78.

31. Louis-Philippe, comte de Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Ségur, vol. , .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à lhistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XIX, éd. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), pp. 329-330.

32. Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (New York: Modem Library, n.d.), I, p. 6.

33. Gibbon, I, pp. 211-214.

34. Ibid., I, p. 214.

35. Voltaire, Essai sur les moeurs, y .: Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, vol. III (Paris: Chez Furne, 1835), p. 583.

36. Gibbon, II, pp. 245-247, 254, 263.

37. Ibid., II, p. 591.

38. Ibid., II, pp. 591-594.

39. Ibid., III, p. 61.

40. Ibid., III, p. 316.

41. Ibid., III, pp. 317-318.

42. Ibid., III, pp. 318-319, note 8.

43. Ibid., III, pp. 321-322.

44. Ibid., III, pp. 322-323.

45. Ibid., III, pp. 322-323, note 22; Janos Gulya, "Some Eighteenth Century Antecedents of Nineteenth Century Linguistics: The Discovery of Finno-Ugrian, " Studies in the History of Linguistics: Traditions and Paradigms, ed. Dell Hymes (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1974), pp. 260-263.

46. Gibbon, III, pp. 324-326, 329.

47. Ibid., III, pp. 330-331, note 45.

48. Ibid., III, pp. 332-333, 335, note 58, 337.

49. Ibid., III, p. 343.

50. Ibid., III, pp. 343-344; David Spadafora, The Idea of Progress in Eighteenth-Century Britain (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1990), pp. 223-324; Roy Porter, "Civilization, Barbarism, and Progress" (Chapter 6), Edward Gibbon: Making History (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988), pp. 135-157.

51. Johann Gottfried Herder Journal meiner Reise im Jahr 1769, ed. Katharina Mommsen (Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam, 1976), p. 7.

52. Ibid., p. 15.

53. Ibid., pp. 38-39.

54. Ibid., pp. 77-78.

55. Ibid., pp. 80-81.

56. Ibid., p. 90.

57. Ibid., pp. 91-92.

58. Ibid., pp. 101-102; Konrad Bittner, "Die Beurteilung der russischen Politik im 18. Jahrhundert durch Johann Gottfried Herder," .: Geiste Herders, ed. Erich Keyser (Kitzingen am Main: Holzner-Verlag, 1953), p. 47.

59. Robert T. Clark, Herder: His Life and Thought (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1955), p. 60.

60. Bittner, pp. 50-51.

61. Ibid., pp. 68-69.

62. Herder, "Von Ahnlichkeit der mittlern englischen und deutschen Dichtkunst," Herders Werke, vol. II, ed. Regine Otto (Berlin and Weimar: Aufbau-Verlag, 1982), p. 289.

63. Herder, "Von Ahnlichkeit, " p. 290.

64. Rousseau, pp. 171-173.

65. Herder, Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, .: Herders Werke, vol. IV, ed. Regine Otto (Berlin and Weimar: Aufbau-Verlag, 1982), pp. 385-386.

66. Ibid., p. 393.

67. Ibid., pp. 393-395.

68. Ibid., p. 395.

69. Herder, Outlines of a Philosophy of the History of Man, trans. T. Churchill (New York: Bergman), pp. 483-484.

70. Herder, Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte, p. 395.

71. Ibid., pp. 396-397.

72. Ibid., pp. 463-464.

73. Immanuel Kant, "Der Charakter des Volks, " Die Anthropologische Charakteristik, .: Schriften zur Anthropologie, Geschichtsphilosophie, Politik, und Padigogik, 2, Werkausgabe, vol. XII (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1977), p. 670.

74. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte, .: Werke, 12 (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1970), p. 422.

75. Alberto Fortis, Travels into Dalmatia: Containing General Observations on the Natural History of that Country and the Neighbouring Islands; the Natural Productions, Arts, Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants (London, 1778; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1971), p. iv.

76. Michele Duchet, Anthropologie et Histoire au siècle des lumieres: Buffon, Voltaire, Rousseau, Helvetius, Diderot (Paris: François Maspero, 1971); Giuseppe Cocchiara, The History of Folklore in Europe, trans. John N. McDaniel (Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1981).

77. Voltaire, Essai sur les moeurs, pp. 607-609.

78. P. J. Marshall and Glyndwr Williams, The Great Map of Mankind: British Perceptions of the World in the Age of Enlightenment (London: J. M. Dent, 1982), epigraph; Spadafora, pp. 253-320.

79. Gianfranco Torcellan, "Profilo di Alberto Fortis," .: Settecento Veneto e altri scrittistorici (Turin: G. Giappichelli, 1969), pp. 273-279.

80. Torcellan, p. 283; Voltaire, Essai sur les moeurs, p. 561.

81. Fortis, pp. 45-47.

82. Ibid., p. 44.

83. Gibbon, II, p. 593; Fortis, p. 44.

84. Duchet, p. 12.

85. Fortis, pp. 51-58.

86. Ibid., pp. 60-61.

87. Ibid., pp. 61-62.

88. Carlo Ginzburg, Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches Sabbath, trans. Raymond Rosenthal (New York: Pantheon Books, 1991), pp. 207-225.

89. Fortis, p. 63.

90. Ibid., pp. 66-67, 70-75.

91. Ibid., pp. 77, 82.

92. Giovanni Lovrich, Osservazioni di Giovanni Lovrich sopra diversipezzi del Viaggio in Dalmazia del Signor Abate Alberto Fortis (Venice: Francesco Sansoni, 1776), pp. 79, 81, 116.

93. Torcellan, p. 288.

94. Ibid., pp. 290-291.

95. Fortis, p. 82.

96. Ibid., p. 83.

97. Ibid.

98. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, "Klaggesang: von der edlen Frauen des Asan Aga, aus dem Morlackischen, " Samtliche Werke, vol. I (Zurich: Artemis Verlag, 1977), p. 301.

99. Stephen Clissold, ed., A Short History of Yugoslavia (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1968), p. 119.

100. Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, Giornale di un Viaggio da Costantinopoli in Polonia dellabate Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (Milan: Giordano Editore, 1966), pp. 6, 37-38.

101. Fortis, p. 84; Cocchiara, pp. 135-140.

102. Fortis, p. 85.

103. Ibid., p. 86.

104. Ibid.

105. Desnos, "LEurope divisée selon létendue de ses principales parties," Paris, 1772 (Harvard); Ségur, Mémoires, souvenirs, et anecdotes, par le comte de Ségur, vol. II, y .: Bibliothèque des mémoires: relatif à lhistoire de France: pendant le 18e siècle, vol. XX, éd. M. Fs. Barrière (Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot Frères, 1859), p. 66.

106. Bittner, p. 60.

107. William Coxe, Travels in Poland and Russia, from Travels in Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, 5th ed. (London, 1802; rpt. New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1970), I, pp. 273-274.

108. Ibid., I, pp. 392-393.

109. Ibid., II, pp. 74-75.

110. Fortis, pp. 88-89.











2. ³


1. Robert Arnold, Geschichte der Deutschen Polenlitteratur: von den Anfängen bis 1800 (Halle: Max Niemeyer, 1900), p. 145.

2. Ibid., p. 52.

3. Ibid., p. 87.

4. Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Briefwechsel, vol. I, ed. Hans Schulz (Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1967), pp. 171-175.

5. Arnold, pp. 8-15, 40-56; Wolfgang Wippermann, Der Deutsche Drang nach Osten: Ideologie und Wirklichkeit eines politischen Schlagwortes (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1981), p. 22.

6. Arnold, pp. 27-29, 31-33, 95-96.

7. Fichte, p. 175.

8. Ibid., p. 176.

9. Ibid., pp. 176-78, 181-183.

10. Joachim Christoph Friedrich Schulz, Reise nach Warschau: Eine Schilderung aus den Jahren 1791-1793, ed. Klaus Zernack, y .: Polnische Bibliothek (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1982), pp. 10-13, 2425, 32-33.

11. Ibid., pp. 348-349.

12. Michael Burleigh, Germany Turns Eastwards: A Study of Ostforschung in the Third Reich (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988), pp. 2628, 105-107, 176-179.

13. Johann Gottfried Herder, Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit, .: Herders Werke, vol. IV, ed. Regine Otto (Berlin and Weimar: Aufbau-Verlag, 1982), p. 472.

14. Gerhard Steiner, Georg Forster (Stuttgart: J. B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1977), pp. 8-46.

15. Georg Forster, Briefe, .: Werke, vol. IV, ed. Gerhard Steiner (Frankfurt: Insel Verlag, 1970), p. 320.

16. Arnold, pp. 108-109; Wippermann, p. 21.

17. Arnold, p. 109.

18. Ibid., pp. 113-114.

19. Georg Forster, "Noch etwas über die Menschenrassen," .: Forsters Werke, vol. I (Berlin and Weimar: Aufbau-Verlag, 1968), pp. 3-4, 16-17.

20. Ibid., pp. 22, 25.

21. Ibid., p. 33.

22. Fichte, pp. 183-184.

23. Schulz, p. 370; Arnold, p. 90.

24. Schulz, pp. 40, 43, 68, 70, 136, 177-178.

25. Arnold, pp. 78, 119-121, 161, 167-177.

26. Ibid., pp. 127, 179-181.

27. Ibid., pp. 190-191.

28. Ibid., p. 161;Güssefeld,"Europa," Nürnberg, 1794 (Harvard); Gussefeld, "Charte von Europa," Nurnberg, 1798 (Harvard).

29. Arnold, p. 113.

30. Leopold Hoffmann, Grosse Wahrheiten und Beweise in einem kleinen Auszuge aus der ungarischen Geschichte (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1792), pp. ii, xi-xii, xvii, xxi, xxv.

31. Fichte, pp. 185-187.

32. Arnold, pp. 63, 144.

33. Fichte, p. 214.

34. Ibid., p. 196.

35. John Ledyard, John Ledyards Journey Through Russia and Siberia 1787-1788: The Journal and Selected Letters, ed. Stephen D. Watrous (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1966), pp. 3-10.

36. Ibid., p. 19.

37. Ibid., pp. 123-124.

38. Mark Bassin, "Inventing Siberia: Visions of the Russian East in the Early Nineteenth Century," American Historical Review 26, no. 3 (June 1991): 767-770.

39. Dmitri von Mohrenschildt, Russia in the Intellectual Life of Eighteenth-Century France (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1936), pp. 112-114; Albert Lortholary, Le Mirage russe en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Boivin, 1951), pp. 191-197; Chappe dAuteroche, Voyage en Sibérie, 4 vols. (Paris: Chez Debure, 1768).

40. Ledyard, p. 143.

41. Ibid., p. 144.

42. Ibid., pp. 145, 153, 156-158, 161.

43. Ibid., pp. 174, 177-178.

44. Ibid., pp. 178-180, 193.

45. Michèle Duchet, Anthropologie et Histoire au siècle des lumieres: Buffon, Voltaire, Rousseau, Helvétius, Diderot (Paris: François Maspero, 1971), p. 258; P. J. Marshall and Glyndwr Williams, The Great Map of Mankind: British Perceptions of the World in the Age of Enlightenment (London: J. M. Dent, 1982), p. 246; David Hume, "Of National Characters," .: Essays: Moral, Political, and Literary: By David Hume, vol. I, ed. T. H. Green and T. H. Grose (London, 1882; rpt. Scientia Verlag Aalen, 1964), p. 252.

46. Ledyard, p. 127.

47. Ibid., pp. 144, 164, 177, 182, 194-195.

48. Ibid., pp. 145, 180.

49. Ibid., p. 257.

50. John Parkinson, A Tour of Russia, Siberia and the Crimea 1791-1794, ed. William Collier (London: Frank Cass, 1971), pp. 56, 63, 66, 98, 109, 118, 138.

51. Ibid., pp. 148, 151, 153, 188.

52. Ledyard, pp. 167, 252-253.

53. Ibid., p. 257.

54. Ibid., pp. 30-31.

55. Ibid., pp. 201-205.

56. Ibid., p. 210.

57. Ibid., p. 211.

58. Ibid., p. 223.

59. Ibid.

60. Ibid., pp. 223-224.

61. Ibid., pp. 227-228.

62. Ibid., p. 228.

63. Ibid., pp. 228-229.










1. Philippe-Paul, comte de Ségur, Napoleons Russian Campaign, trans. J. David Townsend (New York: Time/Life Books, 1965), pp. 43, 97.

2. Ibid., pp. 109, 228-231.

3. Astolphe, marquis de Custine, Empire of the Czar: A Journey Through Eternal Russin, trans, anonymous, intro. George Kennan (New York: Doubleday, 1989), pp. 123, 128.

4. Custine, Empire of the Czar, pp. 128, 155.

5. Custine, Journey for Our Time: The Russian Journals of the Marquis de Custine, trans. Phyllis Penn Kohler, intro. Walter Bedell Smith (Washington, D.C.: Gateway Editions, 1987), pp. 7, 9, 11.

6. Ernst Birke, "Die franzosische Osteuropa-Politik, 1914-1918," Zeitschrift für Ostforschung (1954, Heft 3), p. 322.

7. R. W. Seton-Watson, Disraeli, Gladstone, and the Eastern Question (New York: Norton, 1972), pp. 75, 244, 267.

8. William M. Sloane, The Balkans: A Laboratory of History (New York: Eaton & Mains, 1914), p. vii.

9. Ibid., pp. viii, 3, 56.

10. Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking 1919 (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1965), pp. 33, 126; . : Hugh and Christopher Seton-Watson, The Making of a New Europe: R. W. Seton-Watson and the Last Years of Austria-Hungary (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1981); Domenico Caccamo, "Présupposa e obiettivi della storiografia sullEuropa orientale," .: Introduzione alla Storia della Europa Orientale (Rome: La Nuova Italia Scientifica, 1991), pp. 9-21; Larry Wolff, "French Policy Towards Eastern Europe During the First World War: From Dragon de l'Apocalypse to Cordon Sanitaire," .: Essays in History: The E. C. Barksdale Student Lectures (Arlington, Texas: Phi Alpha Theta, Univ. of Texas, 1980), pp. 177-190.

11. Nicolson, p. 27.

12. Thomas Mann, The Magic Mountain, trans. H. T. Lowe-Porter (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967), pp. 157, 228, 289, 517.

13. Georgena Muir Mackenzie and Paulina Irby, Travels in the Slavonic Provinces of Turkey-in-Europe (London: Bell and Daldy, 1867), pp. xx, xxix, xxx.

14. Rebecca West, Black Lamb and Grey Falcon: A Journey Through Yugoslavia (Penguin Books, 1982), pp. 23, 328, 483; . : Larry Wolff, "Rebecca West," The New York Times Book Review (Feb. 10, 1991).

15. West, p. 662.

16. Michael Burleigh, Germany Turns Eastwards: A Study of Ostforschung in the Third Reich (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988), pp. 137, 151, 167, 242; . : Larry Wolff, rev. of Germany Turns Eastwards, by Michael Burleigh, Harvard Ukrainian Studies 15, no. 3/4 (Dec. 1991): 456-459.

17. Burleigh, p. 306.

18. R. R. Palmer and Joel Colton, "The Transformation of Eastern Europe, 1648-1740," .: A History of the Modern World, 3rd ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), p. 174.

19. Thomas Caldecot Chubb, Slavic Peoples (Cleveland: World Publishing Company, 1962), p. 105.

20. Ian Fleming, From Russia with Love (London: Pan Books, 1959), pp. 142, 184.

21. New York Times, 22 Aug. 1991, p. 1; Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 7/8 Sept. 1991, p. 1; Corriere della Sera, 8 Sept. 1991, "Corriere Cultura," p. 5; Boston Phoenix, 13 Sept. 1991, Section I, pp. 32-33.

22. New York Times, 25 Mar. 1992, p. 1; 8 Apr. 1992, p. 1; 24 May 1992, p. 10.

23. Mikhail Gorbachev, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World (1987; New York: Harper & Row, Perennial Library, 1988), p. 177.

24. Czesław Milosz, Native Realm: A Search for Self-Definition, trans. Catherine S. Leach (New York: Doubleday, 1968), p. 2.

25. Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace, trans. Rosemary Edmonds (Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1982), pp. 843, 1034.

26. Ibid., pp. 1343-1344, 1401.









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